Site Status

This appendix provides a brief commentary on the current status of each of the main Lower Egyptian sites discussed in this text, where known.






Kom K

Destroyed by land reclamation project


Kom W

Intact (as of 13/11/03)


Kom IV

Destroyed by land reclamation project


Site V

Intact (as of 13/11/03)


Site X

Intact (as of 13/11/03)


Site Z

Intact (as of 13/11/03)






Apparently destroyed by agricultural development



Apparently destroyed by agricultural development



Excavation remains are still clear – located within the Wadi Rayan reserve, so should be preserved indefinitely


Northern Shore

Under threat of tourist development


Faiyum Entrance


Cemetery H is half hidden beneath an eighteenth dynasty village.  Both cemeteries had been robbed in antiquity.





Western Delta


Predynastic levels under groundwater, but being excavated by use of a pumping mechanism



Under excavation










A highway from Heliopolis to Helwan is built “almost on top of the site” (Debono and Mortensen 1990,p.7).  The area on both sides has been damaged from the construction work.

The pottery for Area A was sent to Cairo Museum but the museum only kept and registered selected pieces. Regarding Area B  only diagnostic ceramics were kept by the excavators; the rest were reburied in the pits where they were found.  Therefore there is not a complete ceramic collection for analysis.

Both sites A and B were plundered by turn of the 20th century treasure hunters who removed large quantities of lithics (Debono and Mortensen 1990) from surface contexts


Gebel Hof

Gebel Hof is undamaged, but is located within a military zone, and is therefore not available for excavation.






Foundations for a modern building had already been sunk, and in some cases filled with concrete, before the excavation began. This was a rescue excavation on the edges of modern Heliopolis.  NB – of the finds from the original excavation, many are lost (including all flints, palettes, shells and bones) and of the pottery that was located, many items were broken. 


Helwan (first and second dynasty necropolis)

Damaged and still under threat by the encroaching new settlement expansion.  Currently under excavation by Christiana Kholer